Abdulmumini Inda, PhD
Department of Arts Education
Faculty of Education,
Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria.
E-mail: freindofbooks@gmail.com

Maunde Usman Muhammad
Department of Islamic Studies,
Faculty of Arts,
Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria.
E-mail: usmanmaunde@gmail.com


Lawan Abdullahi Muhammad, PhD
Department of Islamic Studies,
Faculty of Arts,
Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria.

This paper examined the causative agents and the aftermath of the 2002 Mambilla riot, which led to the killing of many people, destruction of properties and cracks into the Fulbe/Mambilla relations, which raised the question of identity and origin. Both written and oral sources are used to analyze the phenomena of social strife and violence. Fulbe/Mambilla relations had been smooth and cordial since the 19th century which was beatified with the ethos of religious tolerance as their relationship was defined by their differences. Through this process, other ethnic groups inhabiting the Mambilla Plateau like Kaka, Fanso and Kambo knew the vitality of maintaining peaceful co-existence in the area which carries with it sobriety, intermarriage, trading, and interdependence. However, this type of peaceful relations between them began to take a new dimension prelude to the 1999 democratic transition in Nigeria the peak of which is the riot of 2002. The paper found out that Fulbe/Mambilla relations began to degenerate after the 2002 riot from friendliness to enmity immersed in the ocean of suspicion and slander.
Keywords: Conflicts, Fulbe, Farmers. Mambilla

Various factors lead to conflict, or violence, which is always born out of the clash of interest among societies and nations be it social, economic, political, strategic, or even psychological. The Mambilla plateau with its complex ethno-religious and geographical composition is a classic example of a race between bourgeoisies and the proletariats over the control and distribution of resources. It was this class struggle that led to the Fulbe/Mambilla conflict of 2002 which further raised the question of origin, identity and suspicion. Therefore, this chapter examines the nurture, nature and complexities of intergroup relations between the Fulbe and the Mambilla speaking peoples of the Mambilla plateau.
Theories of Conflict
Conflict is lucidly defined as a social system involving actors with incompatibility between their goals and aspirations which served as a major threat to societal survival, which involves life and property in so many parts of the world . To this end, scholars have made bold steps to examine the nature, types and dimensions of conflict through various perceptual lenses. Typologies and dimensions are the two facets of any social strife. As the former classifies conflicts into types, the latter becomes the variable through which all conflicts, regardless of type are analyzed . Scholars have put forward various theories of conflict ranging from Marxism, which deals with class struggle over scarce resources, Personian theory which deals exclusively with relations of authority, Elite theory that stresses on the inter-play of authoritative structure that negates both the class struggle of the Marxists and Pluralism, to Darwinian concept of the ‘survival of the fittest’ .
However, being a historical analysis over conflict which defines the Fulbe/Mambilla relations, this chapter applies the Marxian theory to examine the phenomenon under study. The theory deals with class struggle between the bourgeoisies and the proletariats over scarce resources in which the former is persistently willing to monopolize the control and distribution of resources, while the latter is tirelessly rebelling against any exploitative system that tends to delimit their progress within the social strata. This development brings the issue of either revolt, or revolution depending on the circumstances on the ground. Therefore, one would argue that the Fulbe being the richest and the privileged few in control of land and resources, and the Mambilla who are predominantly poor despite the fact that they were the first settlers on the plateau saw it as a direct economic onslaught of the bourgeoisies over them. …….

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