Department of History and Diplomatic Studies

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria



OGUNSAKIN Oluwasegun Dare

Department of Peace and Security

Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria



The Nigerian state is currently bedeviled with a high rate of corruption both in private and public institutions after the military handed over power affairs to civilians. With the upsurge of corruption in the country, there have been high increase in insurgency and banditry operation in the country. Therefore, this paper will examine the nexus of corruption, insurgency, banditry and sustainable development in Nigeria. Using the qualitative research design, this paper will interrogate or fashion out issues from journals, articles, government publications, international materials, and internet sources. The increase in inflation and socio-economic degradation in Nigeria has reflected the pandemic ravaging the country, creating a high debt rate and low development. The paper identified that the pandemic of corruption started from the household and community at large as a result of the inequality in the distribution of resources among the citizens. Strong institutions and full implementation of policy to improve the livelihood and development of the nation must be a top agenda of the government. The paper concluded that corruption must be dealt with, and sustainable development must be the government’s order without leaving any sector of the country behind.

Keywords: Corruption, Insurgency, Banditry, Sustainable Development, Nigeria


Corruption is an anti‐social attitude awarding flawed privileges contrary to criminal and ethical norms and impairs the authorities’ capacity to relax the welfare of all citizens. Corruption in Nigeria is a steady phenomenon. In 2012, Nigeria became envisioned to have misplaced over $400 billion to corruption considering its independence (Okoye, 2012, & Ijewereme, 2015). In 2021, the nation ranked 154th in the one hundred eighty nations listed in Transparency International’s Corruption Index (with South Sudan, at 180th, being the maximum corrupt, and Denmark the least) (Transparency International, 2021).

Nigerian politicians locate themselves in a sturdy position of power and wealth due to their network with Nigeria’s oil and fuel industries. These fuel industries are beneath the nation-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Company (NNPC) management. Oil and gasoline exports account for over 90% of all Nigerian export sales (Varrella, 2021). While many politicians personal or have shares in those industries, tax revenues from the power region dwindled, and the blessings of Nigeria’s energy wealth are not lightly disbursed throughout the united states, with Lagos State benefitting disproportionately. Oil and gas revenues consequently account for the enormous majority of the federal price range and the salaries of government officials. Vote rigging by political events in elections is considerable, and corruption is endemic inside authorities. Business arrangements and circles of relatives’ loyalties dominate governmental appointments paving the manner for politicians, officials, and their commercial enterprise associates who together make up the ruling elite to ensure that all of them turn out to be wealthy thru behind-the-scenes agreements and the awarding of worthwhile contracts to favoured supporters (Ralby, 2017). In 2018 many authorities’ employees obtained annual salaries of over $1 million. Corruption runs through every stage of the Nigerian government. From full-size settlement fraud at the pinnacle through petty bribery, cash laundering schemes, embezzlement, and seizing salaries from fake workers, it’s estimated that corruption within the kingdom apparatus costs the nation billions of money every year (Campbell & John, 2018).

In addition to highlighting the devastating blows of corruption at the military operation campaign in opposition to Boko Haram, mention should additionally be made of the complacencies of the likes of Alhaji Buji Foi, an alleged sponsor of the Boko Haram insurgents, performed 24 hours after Mohammad Yusuf, the founder, and leader of the sect. A two-time chairman of neighborhood government and Commissioner in the price of non secular affairs below former Governor Ali Modu Sheriff (Borno state), who succeeded in using his position to provide a safe haven and guide for Boko Haram insurgents. Perhaps extra startling turned into the implication in someday 2012 of General Azubuike Ihejirika (Rtd), former chief of Army Staff, Senator Ali Modi Sheriff, in addition to a senior officer of the Central Bank of Nigeria. These revelations had been made through Dr. Stephen Davis, an independent negotiator who claimed that the lead sponsors of the sect were politicians who channeled their funds via the state’s Apex Bank to make their transactions look legitimate. Although those allegations had been brushed off with the aid of the Goodluck administration, seeing that they have been aimed toward tarnishing its image. The reality remains that there may be no smoke without a hearth. There have been additional allegations from several quarters, and the story of Colonel Sambo Dasuki (Rtd) is fresh in many Nigerians’ minds (Shimawua, 2020). The presidency of Muhammadu Buhari has observed major action against corruption in Nigeria. In 2016, the Senate ad hoc committee on “pailing humanitarian crisis in the North East” coordinated by Senator Shehu Sani fingered the then secretary to the Government of the Federation choosen by Muhammadu Buhari, Mr. Babachir Lawal in an N200 million contract corruption for the clearing of “invasive object species” in Yobe State by Rholavision Nigeria Limited; a company he owns (Adebayo and Ojo, 2017). On October 30, 2017, President Buhari removed Lawal based on the report of a three-person panel coordinated by Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo that investigated him and one other (Abayomi & Adetayo, 2017). Corruption remains a major concern for the government and the people of Nigeria. Corruption affects all

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